A monad transformer is represented by the kind

`T :: (* -> *) -> * -> *`

. The general contract that a monad transformer offers is ..class MonadTrans t where lift :: (Monad m) => m a -> t m a

Here we

*lift*a computation

`m a`

into the context of another effect `t`

. We call `t`

the *monad transformer*, which is itself a monad.

Well in this post, I will discuss monad transformers in scala using scalaz 7. And here's what you get as the base abstraction corresponding to the Haskell typeclass shown above ..

trait MonadTrans[F[_[_], _]] { def lift[G[_] : Monad, A](a: G[A]): F[G, A] }

It takes a

`G`

and lifts it into another computation `F`

thereby combining the effects into the composed monad. Let's look at a couple of examples in scalaz that use `lift`

to compose a new effect into an existing one ..// lift an Option into a List // uses transLift available from the main pimp of scalaz scala> List(10, 12).transLift[OptionT].runT res12: List[Option[Int]] = List(Some(10), Some(12)) // uses explicit constructor methods scala> optionT(List(some(12), some(50))).runT res13: List[Option[Int]] = List(Some(12), Some(50))

If you are like me, you must have already started wondering about the practical usage of this monad transformer thingy. Really we want to see them in action in some meaningful code which we write in our daily lives.

In the paper titled Monad Transformers Step by Step, Martin Grabmuller does this thing in Haskell evolving a complete interpreter of a subset of language using these abstractions and highlighting how they contribute towards an effective functional model of your code. In this post I render some of the scala manifestations of those examples using scalaz 7 as the library of implementation. The important point that Martin also mentions in his paper is that you need to think functionally and organize your code upfront using monadic structures in order to take full advantage of incremental enrichment through monad transformers.

We will be writing an interpreter for a very small language. I will first define the base abstractions and start with a functional code as the implementation base. It does not contain many of the useful stuff like state management, error handling etc., which I will add incrementally using monad transformers. We will see how the core model remains the same, transformers get added in layers and the static type of the interpreter function states explicitly what effects have been added to it.

**The Language**

Here's the language for which we will be writing the interpreter. Pretty basic stuff with literal integers, variables, addition, λ expressions (abstraction) and function application. By abstraction and application I mean lambda terms .. so a quick definition for the uninitiated ..

- a lambda term may be a variable, x

- if t is a lambda term, and x is a variable, then λx.t is a lambda term (called a lambda abstraction)

- if t and s are lambda terms, then ts is a lambda term (called an application)

and the Scala definitions for the language elements ..

// variable names type Name = String // Expression types trait Exp case class Lit(i: Int) extends Exp case class Var(n: Name) extends Exp case class Plus(e1: Exp, e2: Exp) extends Exp case class Abs(n: Name, e: Exp) extends Exp case class App(e1: Exp, e2: Exp) extends Exp // Value types trait Value case class IntVal(i: Int) extends Value case class FunVal(e: Env, n: Name, exp: Exp) extends Value // Environment in which the λ-abstraction will be evaluated type Env = collection.immutable.Map[Name, Value] // defining additional data constructors because in Scala // typeclass resolution and variance often give some surprises with type inferencing object Values { def intval(i: Int): Value = IntVal(i) def funval(e: Env, n: Name, exp: Exp): Value = FunVal(e, n, exp) }

**The Reference Implementation**

I start with the base implementation, which is a functional model of the interpreter. It contains only the basic stuff for evaluation and has no monadic structure. Incrementally we will start having fun with this ..

def eval0: Env => Exp => Value = { env => exp => exp match { case Lit(i) => IntVal(i) case Var(n) => (env get n).get case Plus(e1, e2) => { val IntVal(i1) = eval0(env)(e1) val IntVal(i2) = eval0(env)(e2) IntVal(i1 + i2) } case Abs(n, e) => FunVal(env, n, e) case App(e1, e2) => { val val1 = eval0(env)(e1) val val2 = eval0(env)(e2) val1 match { case FunVal(e, n, exp) => eval0((e + ((n, val2))))(exp) } } } }

Note we assume that we have the proper matches everywhere - the

`Map`

lookup in processing variables (`Var`

) doesn't fail and we have the proper function value when we go for the function application. So things look happy for the correct paths of expression evaluation ..// Evaluate: 12 + ((λx -> x)(4 + 2)) scala> val e1 = Plus(Lit(12), App(Abs("x", Var("x")), Plus(Lit(4), Lit(2)))) e1: Plus = Plus(Lit(12),App(Abs(x,Var(x)),Plus(Lit(4),Lit(2)))) scala> eval0(collection.immutable.Map.empty[Name, Value])(e1) res4: Value = IntVal(18)

**Go Monadic**

Monad transformers give you layers of control over the various aspects of your computation. But for that to happen you need to organize your code in a monadic way. Think of it like this - if your code models the computations of your domain (aka the domain logic) as per the contracts of an abstraction you can very well compose more of similar abstractions in layers without directly poking into the underlying implementation.

Let's do one thing - let's transform the above function into a monadic one that doesn't add any effect. It only sets up the base case for other monad transformers to prepare their playing fields. It's the Identity monad, which simply applies the bound function to its input without any additional computational effect. In scalaz 7

`Identity`

simply wraps a value and provides a `map`

and `flatMap`

for bind.Here's our next iteration of

`eval`

, this time with the `Identity`

monad baked in .. `eval0`

was returning `Value`

, `eval1`

returns `Identity[Value]`

- the return type makes this fact explicit that we are now in the land of monads and have wrapped ourselves into a computational structure which can only be manipulated through the bounds of the contract that the monad allows.type Eval1[A] = Identity[A] def eval1: Env => Exp => Eval1[Value] = {env => exp => exp match { case Lit(i) => intval(i).point[Eval1] case Var(n) => (env get n).get.point[Eval1] case Plus(e1, e2) => for { i <- eval1(env)(e1) j <- eval1(env)(e2) } yield { val IntVal(i1) = i val IntVal(i2) = j IntVal(i1 + i2) } case Abs(n, e) => funval(env, n, e).point[Eval1] case App(e1, e2) => for { val1 <- eval1(env)(e1) val2 <- eval1(env)(e2) } yield { val1 match { case FunVal(e, n, exp) => eval1((e + ((n, val2))))(exp) } } } }

All returns are now monadic, though the basic computation remains the same. The

`Lit`

, `Abs`

and the `Var`

cases use the `point`

function (`pure`

in scalaz 6) equivalent to a Haskell `return`

. `Plus`

and `App`

use the for comprehension to evaluate the monadic action. Here's the result on the REPL ..scala> eval1(collection.immutable.Map.empty[Name, Value])(e1) res7: Eval1[Value] = scalaz.Identity$$anon$2@18f67fc scala> res7.value res8: Value = IntVal(18)

So the

`Identity`

monad has successfully installed itself making our computational model like an onion peel on which we can now stack up additional effects.**Handling Errors**

In

`eval1`

we have a monadic functional model of our computation. But we have not yet handled any errors that may arise from the computation. And I promised that we will add such effects incrementally without changing the guts of your model. As a very first step, let's use a monad transformer that helps us handle errors, not by throwing exceptions (exceptions are bad .. right?) but by wrapping the error conditions in yet another abstraction. Needless to say this also has to be monadic because we would like it to compose with our already implemented

`Identity`

monad and the others that we will work out later on.scalaz 7 offers EitherT which we can use as the Error monad transformer. It is defined as ..

sealed trait EitherT[A, F[_], B] { val runT: F[Either[A, B]] //.. }

It adds the

`EitherT`

computation on top of `F`

so that the composed monad will have both the effects. And as with `Either`

we use the `Left A`

for the error condition and the `Right B`

for returning the result. The plus point of using the monad transformer is that this plumbing of the 2 monads is taken care of by the implementation of `EitherT`

, so that we can simply define the following ..type Eval2[A] = EitherT[String, Identity, A] def eval2a: Env => Exp => Eval2[Value] = {env => exp => //.. }

The error will be reported as

`String`

and the `Value`

will be returned in the `Right`

constructor of `Either`

. Our return type is also explicit in what the function does. You can simply change the return type to `Eval2`

and keep the rest of the function same as `eval1`

. It works perfectly like the earlier one. Since we have not yet coded explicitly for the error conditions, appropriate error messages will not appear, but the happy paths execute as earlier even with the changed return type. This is because `Identity`

was a monad and so is the newly composed one consisting of `Identity`

and `EitherT`

.We can run

`eval2a`

and the only difference in output will be that the result will be wrapped in a `Right`

constructor ..scala> val e1 = Plus(Lit(12), App(Abs("x", Var("x")), Plus(Lit(4), Lit(2)))) e1: Plus = Plus(Lit(12),App(Abs(x,Var(x)),Plus(Lit(4),Lit(2)))) scala> eval2a(collection.immutable.Map.empty[Name, Value])(e1) res31: Eval2[Value] = scalaz.EitherTs$$anon$2@ad2f60 scala> res31.runT.value res33: Either[String,Value] = Right(IntVal(18))

We can do a couple of more iterations improving upon how we can handle errors using

`EitherT`

and issue appropriate error messages to the user. Here's the final version that has all error handling implemented. Note however that the core model remains the same - we have only added the `Left`

handling for error conditions ..def eval2: Env => Exp => Eval2[Value] = {env => exp => exp match { case Lit(i) => intval(i).point[Eval2] case Var(n) => (env get n).map(v => rightT[String, Identity, Value](v)) .getOrElse(leftT[String, Identity, Value]("Unbound variable " + n)) case Plus(e1, e2) => val r = for { i <- eval2(env)(e1) j <- eval2(env)(e2) } yield((i, j)) r.runT.value match { case Right((IntVal(i_), IntVal(j_))) => rightT(IntVal(i_ + j_)) case Left(s) => leftT("type error in Plus" + "/" + s) case _ => leftT("type error in Plus") } case Abs(n, e) => funval(env, n, e).point[Eval2] case App(e1, e2) => val r = for { val1 <- eval2(env)(e1) val2 <- eval2(env)(e2) } yield((val1, val2)) r.runT.value match { case Right((FunVal(e, n, exp), v)) => eval2(e + ((n, v)))(exp) case _ => leftT("type error in App") } } }

**How about some State ?**

Let's add some mutable state in the function using the State monad. So now we need to stack up our pile of transformers with yet another effect. We would like to add some profiling capabilities that track invocation of every pattern in the evaluator. For simplicity we just count the number of invocations as an integer and report it along with the final output. We define the new monad by wrapping a

`StateT`

constructor around the innermost monad, `Identity`

. So now our return type becomes ..type Eval3[A] = EitherT[String, StateTIntIdentity, A]

We layer the

`StateT`

between `EitherT`

and `Identity`

- hence we need to form a composition between `StateT`

and `Identity`

that goes as the constructor to `EitherT`

. This is defined as `StateTIntIdentity`

, we make the state an `Int`

. And we define this as a type lambda as follows ..type StateTIntIdentity[α] = ({type λ[α] = StateT[Int, Identity, α]})#λ[α]

Intuitively our returned value in case of a successful evaluation will be a tuple2

`(Either[String, Value], Int)`

, as we will see shortly.We write a couple of helper functions that manages the state by incrementing a counter and lifting the result into a

`StateT`

monad and finally lifting everything into the `EitherT`

.def stfn(e: Either[String, Value]) = (s: Int) => id[(Either[String, Value], Int)](e, s+1) def eitherNStateT(e: Either[String, Value]) = eitherT[String, StateTIntIdentity, Value](stateT[Int, Identity, Either[String, Value]](stfn(e)))

And here's the

`eval3`

function that does the evaluation along with profiling and error handling ..def eval3: Env => Exp => Eval3[Value] = {env => exp => exp match { case Lit(i) => eitherNStateT(Right(IntVal(i))) case Plus(e1, e2) => def appplus(v1: Value, v2: Value) = (v1, v2) match { case ((IntVal(i1), IntVal(i2))) => eitherNStateT(Right(IntVal(i1 + i2))) case _ => eitherNStateT(Left("type error in Plus")) } for { i <- eval3(env)(e1) j <- eval3(env)(e2) v <- appplus(i, j) } yield v case Var(n) => val v = (env get n).map(Right(_)) .getOrElse(Left("Unbound variable " + n)) eitherNStateT(v) case Abs(n, e) => eitherNStateT(Right(FunVal(env, n, e))) case App(e1, e2) => def appfun(v1: Value, v2: Value) = v1 match { case FunVal(e, n, body) => eval3(e + ((n, v2)))(body) case _ => eitherNStateT(Left("type error in App")) } val s = for { val1 <- eval3(env)(e1) val2 <- eval3(env)(e2) v <- appfun(val1, val2) } yield v val ust = s.runT.value.usingT((x: Int) => x + 1) eitherT[String, StateTIntIdentity, Value](ust) } }

We run the above function through another helper

`runEval3`

that also takes the seed value of the state ..def runEval3: Env => Exp => Int => (Either[String, Value], Int) = { env => exp => seed => eval3(env)(exp).runT.value.run(seed) }

Here's the REPL session with

`runEval3`

..scala> val e1 = Plus(Lit(12), App(Abs("x", Var("x")), Plus(Lit(4), Lit(2)))) e1: Plus = Plus(Lit(12),App(Abs(x,Var(x)),Plus(Lit(4),Lit(2)))) scala> runEval3(env)(e1)(0) res25: (Either[String,Value], Int) = (Right(IntVal(18)),8) // -- failure case -- scala> val e2 = Plus(Lit(12), App(Abs("x", Var("y")), Plus(Lit(4), Lit(2)))) e2: Plus = Plus(Lit(12),App(Abs(x,Var(y)),Plus(Lit(4),Lit(2)))) scala> runEval3(env)(e2)(0) res27: (Either[String,Value], Int) = (Left(Unbound variable y),7)

In case you are interested the whole code base is there in my github repository. Feel free to check out. I will be adding a couple of more transformers for hiding the environment (

`ReaderT`

) and logging (`WriterT`

) and also `IO`

.