The answer to all of the above is to have a uniform Project Geometry for your organization. When I talk about the geometry, I mean only the software aspect of the project, the code that gets churned out by the software development team, the documentation artifacts that get generated in the process and the machinery that builds the code and deploys the binary to the desired target platform. The geometry ensures a uniformity not only in the look and feel of the project (the directory hierarchy, package structure, archetypes, build engine etc.), but also the innards of implementation which include the whole gamut from the design of the exception hierarchy down to the details of how the application interfaces with the external services layer. The following rumblings are some of my thoughts on what I mean when I talk about Project Geometry.
In the article Four Dynamics for Bringing Use Back Into Software Reuse published in the Communications of the ACM, January 2006, Kevin C Desouza, Yukika Awazu and Amrit Tiwana identify three salient dynamics associated with the knowledge consumption lifecycle of a project - reuse, redesign and recode. They define
Reuse is the application of existing software artifacts as is; redesign is the act of altering existing software artifacts; and recoding is the discovery of new software artifacts through construction of software code or system designs.
In each of the above dynamics, there is an implicit assumption of pre-existence of software artifacts which finds place in the current lifecycle through a discovery process - either as-is or in a derived manifestation.
The question is : where from do we get these artifacts that can be reused ?
The Project Container
Every modern day IT organization who delivers software can have a Project Container, a meta-project which helps individual project teams to incubate new projects. The project container evangelizes the best practices for development, deployment and documentation and provides plug-ins and archetypes to kick-start a new project for the organization.
It should be as simple as 1-2-3 .. Let us consider a case study ..
For my organization, the build platform of choice for a Java based project is maven 2 and I should be able to generate a standard project skeleton structure from an archetype which is part of my project container. Here they go ..
- Download plugin for bootstrap from the project container repository
- Run maven install (
mvn install ...)
- Setup project home
- Create archetype (
mvn archetype:create -D... ...)
Boom .. we go .. my entire project hierarchy skeleton is ready with the corporate standard directory hierarchy, package naming conventions, documentation folders and (most importantly) a skeleton Project Object Model (POM) for my project. When I open up my IDE, I can find my prject already installed in the workspace! I can straightway start adding external dependencies to the pom.xml. Maven has really done wonders to the project engineering aspect through its concepts of archetypes, plugins and POMs. I can start defining my own project specific package hierarchy and write my own business logic.
My Project Structure
Any Java based project bootstrapped using the above project container of my organization bears the stamp of its identity. With its families of plug-ins and artifacts, the project container ensures a uniform geometry of all projects delivered from this place. It's really geometry in action - promoting reuse and uniformity of structure, thereby making life easier for all team members joining the project later in the lifecycle. Joel Spolsky talks about the Development Abstraction Layer as an illusion created by the management with its associated services which makes the programmer feel that a software company can be run only by writing code. In this context, the project container takes care of the engineering aspects of the project environment and presents to the programmer a feeling that the software that he delivers is only about writing the business logic. The other machineries like coding conventions (comes integrated with the IDE through container based checkstyles), build engine (again comes with the incubation process), documentation (maven based, comes free with the project container) and project portal (maven generated with container based customization) gets plugged in automatically as part of the bootstrapping process. The best thing is that the process is repeatable - every project based on a specific platform gets bootstrapped the same way with the same conventions replicated, resulting in a uniform project geometry.
Is This All ?
Actually project geometry is extensible to the limits you take it to. I can consider a standard infrastructure layer to be part of my project container for Java based projects. The exception hierarchy, standard utilities, a generic database layer, a generic messaging layer can all be part of the container.
But, what if I don't need'em all ?
You pay only for what you take. The project container repository gives you all options that it has to provide - pick and choose only the ones you need and set up dependencies in your POM. Remember, Maven 2 can handle transitive dependencies, one feature that we all have been crying for months.
The Sky is the Limit!
Taking it to the extremes - the project container can offer you options of implementation of some features if you base your code based on the container's contracts. This implies that the project container is not a mere engineering vehicle - it acts as a framework as well. Suppose in your Java application you need to have an Application Context for obvious reasons. You can design your application's context based upon the contracts exposed by your project container. And you can choose to select one of the many possible implementations during deployment - you can choose to use Spring's IoC container based context implementation or you can select the vanilla flat namespace based default implementation provided by the container itself. Whatever you do, you always honor the basic guideline, that of discovering from the project container and making it suitable for your use, and in the process maintaining the uniform geometry within your project.