Thursday, August 31, 2006

Closures in Java and The Other Side of Backwards Compatibility

It's the power of community - the awesome force that makes Java evolve, has once again started roaring at the news of a possible inclusion of Closures in Dolphin. Not that all of the ruminations are favorable, in fact the functional gurus at LtU have once again started chanting about how Java contains a number of fundamental (technical) design flaws and that Sun should start immediately looking for an alternative to Java as the next programming language.

My current post has been triggered by the excellent article that Bill Venners has written in Artima, where he has lamented how the extreme efforts to maintain backwards compatibility in Java is hindering the elegance of the language. Bruce Eckel had also raised this point many times in the past when Sun pushed in its broken Generics implementation philosophy in Java 5 for the sake of maintaining backwards compatibility with the millions of lines of existing codebase. Bill has hit the nail right on its head -
There's a natural law in programming language and API design: as backwards compatibility increases, elegance decreases. Backwards compatibility is very important. There's a cost to breaking code, but there's also a cost to not breaking it—complexity in the developer's face.

In trying to compromise with some of the inadequacies of the language, Java is turning out a feature bloat. Large enterprise applications have started to accumulate blobs of codebase built upon contradictory features of the language, just because Java did not clean 'em up in subsequent releases and still continues to support the legacy, maybe with a couple of hundreds of deprecated warnings. I think this is a far worse situation than breaking backwards compatibility.

Microsoft has displayed much more sanity in this regard and have made a conscious effort to clean things up in the course of the evolution of C#. I know the codebase size that C# has in the industry is in no way comparable to that of Java - but still I cannot support the path that Java has adopted, which, in a way has encouraged piling of inadequate code bloats. Java has released version 5, Mustang is on its way later this year, we are looking and planning for Dolphin - yet in the most popular object oriented language of the industry, primitives are no objects. We cannot have the elegance of writing

200.times { |i|
  # do something

Look at the tons of code in any legacy application today and you will be stunned by the amount of effort people have taken for special processing of primitives.

Closures with Backwards Compatibility ?

Closures are typically a functional programming artifact, though all modern scripting languages have been supporting it. C# has rolled out its implementation of closures through delegates and are bringing lambdas in 3.0. I suspect these have been the major triggers behind the sudden clairvoyance of Gilad Bracha and his team in announcing the support of closures in Dolphin.

Closure Implementation

Sun has been thoroughly conservative on any change in JVM, Gilad has talked about his struggle to force "invokedynamic" as the only change in the JVM for years. Closures, as this post suggests, can be implemented as a syntactic sugar at the javac level by creating closure objects on the heap and autoboxing of mutant parameters. I have strong doubts if Sun will go to the extent of changing JVM for implementing efficient cheap-to-use closures. Reason - Backwards Compatibility !

Closure Usage

In my earlier post on this subject, I had mentioned about internal iterators, which I would like to see as part of the closures package. As Joe Walker has mentioned in his blog, and Bill has discussed based on his suggestion, we would like to see a .each() method in the Collection interface. Again this cannot be done without breaking existing codebase, since it adds to the interface Collection. The question is "Will Sun go for this ?" or make us eat the humble pie by offering the much less elegant workaround of statics in Collections.each(Collection, ..). Once again Backwards Compatibility hinders the added elegance !

As a workaround to the above problem of maintaining backwards compatibility by adding more methods to existing interfaces, C# has come up with "extension methods", while Scala has introduced "implicits" and "views". Martin Odersky has had a very good discussion of these capabilities in the Weblog forum of Bill's article.

We need to wait till Java comes up with a strategy to address these issues.

Closures - Will it make Java a Functional Programming Language ?

Definitely not! I think adding closures will be just an attempt to reduce the awkwardness of the interfaces-anonymous classes idiom, now used to abstract an algorithm over a piece of code. Just by adding closures to Java, developers will never start thinking in terms of monads and combinators while composing their programs. But given an efficient implementation and a proper library support, it will help add elegance to programming in Java.

Here's the tailpiece from Karsten Wagner in a typical Java bashing in LtU ..
To get all those nice stuff you want Java needs much more than just a simply syntax for closures. So I think it's better to let Java stay the way it is and phase it out in the long term and use a real better language instead, because Java simply is beyond repair in too many points.

I am not that pessimistic, I still make my living on Java (though I seek the joy of programming in Scala) and hope that Gilad and his team bring out a killer offering with Closures.


Just when I was rumbling through the formatting of this entry, I noticed this in InfoQ, where Sun has created JSR 270 to remove features from the Java SE platform. This is definitely a welcome step .. more details can be found in Mark Reinhold's blog.


Anonymous said...

Here are my thoughts on this subject.

I don't think Java is horribly broken. It just needs cleaned up in a few not-quite-backwards-compatible ways.

Unknown said...

I also do not think that Java is broken. Amidst the plethora of languages now in fashion, I do not think any of them can match the performance of Java. The killer concurrency library by Doug Lea, the excellent tool support that we have in Java and all innovations lined up for Dolphin - all point to more gems in the horizon. My concern is the extreme pain that Sun is taking to maintain backwards compatibility. The result is the broken generics support, the auto-boxing pain etc. My apprehension is that the upcoming closure implementation may also follow suit - we need real closures as we have in Groovy, Ruby, Scala etc. with a user friendly syntax and proper library support.

Unknown said...

this post is now available from dzone here