## Monday, December 20, 2010

### DSLs In Action is out!

It all started with a mail from Christina of Manning expressing their interest in publishing a book on building parsers in Scala. She mentioned that they have come across a blog post of mine titled External DSLs made easy with Scala Parser Combinators and Marjan Bace (Publisher) would like to talk to me on this possible venture. I still remember that hour long discussion with Marjan that ultimately led to the thoughts of coming out with a book on DSL design.

The ebook of DSLs In Action (buy here)* has been published, the print version is due Dec 24, just in time for Christmas. The final book is sized at 377 pages with 9 chapters and 7 appendices. Before publication the book was reviewed at various levels by an illustrious panel of reviewers. I received lots of feedbacks and suggestions at Manning online Author's Forum. The current incarnation of the book is the result of assimilating all suggestions, feedbacks and critiques aided by the constructive editing process of the Manning crew. Jonas Boner has been kind enough to write the foreword of the book. The result is now a reality for all of you to read, enjoy and review.

Some one asked to me pen down my thoughts on DSLs In Action in one page. Not the literal summary of what it contains, but the impressions of some of the thought snippets that it can potentially induce into the minds of its readers. This post is an attempt towards that.

DSL and polyglotism

A DSL is targeted for a specific domain. Your implementation should be expressive enough to model the ubiquitous language that your domain users use everyday. Hence the practice od DSL driven development has an aura of polyglotism in it. Assuming you have the relevant expertise in your team, target the implementation language that's best suited for developing the syntax of the domain. DSLs In Action considers case studies in Ruby, Groovy, Clojure and Scala and focuses its readers to the implementation patterns of DSLs in each of them.

A DSL as a collaboration medium

The one most standout dimension that DSL driven development adds to a team is an increased emphasis on collaboration. The main value proposition that a DSL brings to table is a better collaboration model between the developers and the domain users. It's no secret that most of today's failed projects attribute their debacle to the huge gap in the developers' understanding of the domain. This mainly results from the lack of communication between the developers and the domain users and also between the different groups of developers. When you have code snippets like the following as part of your domain model ..

import TaxFeeImplicits._ override def calculatedAs(trade: Trade): PartialFunction[TaxFee, BigDecimal] = {   case TradeTax   => 5.  percent_of trade.principal   case Commission => 20. percent_of trade.principal   case Surcharge  => 7.  percent_of trade.principal   case VAT        => 7.  percent_of trade.principal } 
you can collaborate very well with your domain experts to verify the correctness of implementation of the business rule for tax calculation on a security trade. DSLs In Action dispels the myth that a DSL will make your domain analysts programmers - it will not. A DSL best serves as the collaboration bridge to discuss business rules' implementation with your analysts.

Importance of the semantic model

A DSL is a thin layer of linguistic abstraction atop a semantic model. I have blogged on this topic some time ago. The semantic model is the set of abstractions on which you grow your DSL syntax. The semantic model can potentially be reused for purposes other than developing your DSL layer - hence it needs to be as loosely coupled as possible with the syntax that your DSL publishes. In DSLs In Action I discuss the concept of a DSL Facade that helps you decouple basic abstractions of the domain model from the language itself.

DSL design is also abstraction design

Throughout DSLs In Action I have highlighted many of the good qualities that a well-designed abstraction needs to have. In fact Appendix A is totally dedicated to discussing the qualities of good abstractions. In almost every chapter I talk about how these qualities (minimalism, distillation, composability and extensibility) apply in every step of your DSL design. In real world when you implement DSLs, you will see that entire DSLs also need to be composed as abstractions. Use a proper language that supports good models of abstraction composition

External and Internal is only one dimension of classifying DSLs

Though broadly I talk about external and internal DSLs, actually there are lots of different implementation patterns even within them. Internal DSLs can be embedded where you emded the domain language within the type system of the host language. Or they can generative where you allow the language runtime to generate code for you, like you do in Ruby or Groovy using dynamic meta-programming. With the Lisp family you can create your own language using macros. Some time back I blogged about all these varying implementation patterns with internal and external DSLs.

Hope you all like DSLs In Action. If you have reached this far in the post, there are chapters 1 and 4 free on Manning site taht would help you get a sneak peak of some of the stuff that I talked about .. Happy Holidays!

Claus Ibsen said...

Congrat on the book.

I am waiting for the pbook to arrive here in Sweden, then I can enjoy reading it on the couch while its dark, cold and snowy outside. I am kinda old school and love print books if I am really gonna dig deep and read it cover to cover. Which obviously I will do with this book.

Henrik Huttunen said...

Hi, your blog has been one of the few I actively look at. You have explored the practical side of flexible languages in very digestible manner.